The corticospinal tract is the most intensively investigated tract of the human motor system in stroke rehabilitative research. Diffusion-tensor-imaging gives insights into its microstructure, and transcranial magnetic stimulation assesses its excitability. Previous data on the interrelationship between both measures are contradictory. Correlative or predictive models which associate them with motor outcome are incomplete. Free water correction has been developed to enhance diffusion-tensor-imaging by eliminating partial volume with extracellular water, which could improve capturing stroke-related microstructural alterations, thereby also improving structure-function relationships in clinical cohorts. In the present cross-sectional study, data of 18 chronic stroke patients and 17 healthy controls, taken from a previous study on cortico-cerebellar motor tracts, were re-analysed: The data included diffusion-tensor-imaging data quantifying corticospinal tract microstructure with and without free water correction, transcranial magnetic stimulation data assessing recruitment curve properties of motor evoked potentials and detailed clinical data. Linear regression modelling was used to interrelate corticospinal tract microstructure, recruitment curves properties and clinical scores. The main finding of the present study was that free water correction substantially strengthens structure-function associations in stroke patients: Specifically, our data evidenced a significant association between fractional anisotropy of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract and its excitability ( = 0.001, adj. = 0.54), with free water correction explaining additional 20% in recruitment curve variability. For clinical scores, only free water correction leads to the reliable detection of significant correlations between ipsilesional corticospinal tract fractional anisotropy and residual grip ( = 0.001, adj. = 0.70) and pinch force ( < 0.001, adj. = 0.72). Finally, multimodal models can be improved by free water correction as well. This study evidences that corticospinal tract microstructure directly relates to its excitability in stroke patients. It also shows that unexplained variance in motor outcome is considerably reduced by free water correction arguing that it might serve as a powerful tool to improve existing models of structure-function associations and potentially also outcome prediction after stroke.
Purpose: To develop a machine learning model to classify the severity grades of pulmonary edema on chest radiographs. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 369 071 chest radiographs and associated radiology reports from 64 581 patients (mean age, 51.71 years; 54.51% women) from the MIMIC-CXR chest radiograph dataset were included. This dataset was split into patients with and without congestive heart failure (CHF). Pulmonary edema severity labels from the associated radiology reports were extracted from patients with CHF as four different ordinal levels: 0, no edema; 1, vascular congestion; 2, interstitial edema; and 3, alveolar edema. Deep learning models were developed using two approaches: a semisupervised model using a variational autoencoder and a pretrained supervised learning model using a dense neural network. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed on both models. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for differentiating alveolar edema from no edema was 0.99 for the semisupervised model and 0.87 for the pretrained models. Performance of the algorithm was inversely related to the difficulty in categorizing milder states of pulmonary edema (shown as AUCs for semisupervised model and pretrained model, respectively): 2 versus 0, 0.88 and 0.81; 1 versus 0, 0.79 and 0.66; 3 versus 1, 0.93 and 0.82; 2 versus 1, 0.69 and 0.73; and 3 versus 2, 0.88 and 0.63. Conclusion: Deep learning models were trained on a large chest radiograph dataset and could grade the severity of pulmonary edema on chest radiographs with high performance.Supplemental material is available for this article.See also the commentary by Auffermann in this issue.© RSNA, 2021.
Introduction: Neuronavigation greatly improves the surgeons ability to approach, assess and operate on brain tumors, but tends to lose its accuracy as the surgery progresses and substantial brain shift and deformation occurs. Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) can partially address this problem but is resource intensive and workflow disruptive. Intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) provides real-time information that can be used to update neuronavigation and provide real-time information regarding the resection progress. We describe the intraoperative use of 3D iUS in relation to iMRI, and discuss the challenges and opportunities in its use in neurosurgical practice. Methods: We performed a retrospective evaluation of patients who underwent image-guided brain tumor resection in which both 3D iUS and iMRI were used. The study was conducted between June 2020 and December 2020 when an extension of a commercially available navigation software was introduced in our practice enabling 3D iUS volumes to be reconstructed from tracked 2D iUS images. For each patient, three or more 3D iUS images were acquired during the procedure, and one iMRI was acquired towards the end. The iUS images included an extradural ultrasound sweep acquired before dural incision (iUS-1), a post-dural opening iUS (iUS-2), and a third iUS acquired immediately before the iMRI acquisition (iUS-3). iUS-1 and preoperative MRI were compared to evaluate the ability of iUS to visualize tumor boundaries and critical anatomic landmarks; iUS-3 and iMRI were compared to evaluate the ability of iUS for predicting residual tumor. Results: Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Fifteen patients had tumors located in eloquent or near eloquent brain regions, the majority of patients had low grade gliomas (11), gross total resection was achieved in 12 patients, postoperative temporary deficits were observed in five patients. In twenty-two iUS was able to define tumor location, tumor margins, and was able to indicate relevant landmarks for orientation and guidance. In sixteen cases, white matter fiber tracts computed from preoperative dMRI were overlaid on the iUS images. In nineteen patients, the EOR (GTR or STR) was predicted by iUS and confirmed by iMRI. The remaining four patients where iUS was not able to evaluate the presence or absence of residual tumor were recurrent cases with a previous surgical cavity that hindered good contact between the US probe and the brainsurface. Conclusion: This recent experience at our institution illustrates the practical benefits, challenges, and opportunities of 3D iUS in relation to iMRI.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this exploratory study were to investigate the feasibility of multidimensional diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MddMRI) in assessing diffusion heterogeneity at both a macroscopic and microscopic level in prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Informed consent was obtained from 46 subjects who underwent 3.0-T prostate multiparametric MRI, complemented with a prototype spin echo-based MddMRI sequence in this institutional review board-approved study. Prostate cancer tumors and comparative normal tissue from each patient were contoured on both apparent diffusion coefficient and MddMRI-derived mean diffusivity (MD) maps (from which microscopic diffusion heterogeneity [MKi] and microscopic diffusion anisotropy were derived) using 3D Slicer. The discriminative ability of MddMRI-derived parameters to differentiate PCa from normal tissue was determined using the Friedman test. To determine if tumor diffusion heterogeneity is similar on macroscopic and microscopic scales, the linear association between SD of MD and mean MKi was estimated using robust regression (bisquare weighting). Hypothesis testing was 2 tailed; P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: All MddMRI-derived parameters could distinguish tumor from normal tissue in the fixed-effects analysis (P < 0.0001). Tumor MKi was higher (P < 0.05) compared with normal tissue (median, 0.40; interquartile range, 0.29-0.52 vs 0.20-0.18; 0.25), as was tumor microscopic diffusion anisotropy (0.55; 0.36-0.81 vs 0.20-0.15; 0.28). The MKi could not be predicted (no significant association) by SD of MD. There was a significant correlation between tumor volume and SD of MD (R2 = 0.50, slope = 0.008 μm2/ms per millimeter, P < 0.001) but not between tumor volume and MKi. CONCLUSIONS: This explorative study demonstrates that MddMRI provides novel information on MKi and microscopic anisotropy, which differ from measures at the macroscopic level. MddMRI has the potential to characterize tumor tissue heterogeneity at different spatial scales.
In this work, we leverage the Laplacian eigenbasis of voxel-wise white matter (WM) graphs derived from diffusion-weighted MRI data, dubbed WM harmonics, to characterize the spatial structure of WM fMRI data. Our motivation for such a characterization is based on studies that show WM fMRI data exhibit a spatial correlational anisotropy that coincides with underlying fiber patterns. By quantifying the energy content of WM fMRI data associated with subsets of WM harmonics across multiple spectral bands, we show that the data exhibits notable subtle spatial modulations under functional load that are not manifested during rest. WM harmonics provide a novel means to study the spatial dynamics of WM fMRI data, in such way that the analysis is informed by the underlying anatomical structure.
Most existing algorithms for automatic 3D morphometry of human brain MRI scans are designed for data with near-isotropic voxels at approximately 1 mm resolution, and frequently have contrast constraints as well-typically requiring T1-weighted images (e.g., MP-RAGE scans). This limitation prevents the analysis of millions of MRI scans acquired with large inter-slice spacing in clinical settings every year. In turn, the inability to quantitatively analyze these scans hinders the adoption of quantitative neuro imaging in healthcare, and also precludes research studies that could attain huge sample sizes and hence greatly improve our understanding of the human brain. Recent advances in convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are producing outstanding results in super-resolution and contrast synthesis of MRI. However, these approaches are very sensitive to the specific combination of contrast, resolution and orientation of the input images, and thus do not generalize to diverse clinical acquisition protocols - even within sites. In this article, we present SynthSR, a method to train a CNN that receives one or more scans with spaced slices, acquired with different contrast, resolution and orientation, and produces an isotropic scan of canonical contrast (typically a 1 mm MP-RAGE). The presented method does not require any preprocessing, beyond rigid coregistration of the input scans. Crucially, SynthSR trains on synthetic input images generated from 3D segmentations, and can thus be used to train CNNs for any combination of contrasts, resolutions and orientations without high-resolution real images of the input contrasts. We test the images generated with SynthSR in an array of common downstream analyses, and show that they can be reliably used for subcortical segmentation and volumetry, image registration (e.g., for tensor-based morphometry), and, if some image quality requirements are met, even cortical thickness morphometry. The source code is publicly available at https://github.com/BBillot/SynthSR.
Subtle alterations in white matter microstructure are observed in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. However, the timing of these changes and their relationships to the emergence of psychosis remain unclear. Here, we track the evolution of white matter abnormalities in a large, longitudinal cohort of CHR individuals comprising the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS-3). Multi-shell diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data were collected across multiple timepoints (1-5 over 1 year) in 286 subjects (aged 12-32 years): 25 CHR individuals who transitioned to psychosis (CHR-P; 61 scans), 205 CHR subjects with unknown transition outcome after the 1-year follow-up period (CHR-U; 596 scans), and 56 healthy controls (195 scans). Linear mixed effects models were fitted to infer the impact of age and illness-onset on variation in the fractional anisotropy of cellular tissue (FAT) and the volume fraction of extracellular free water (FW). Baseline measures of white matter microstructure did not differentiate between HC, CHR-U and CHR-P individuals. However, age trajectories differed between the three groups in line with a developmental effect: CHR-P and CHR-U groups displayed higher FAT in adolescence, and 4% lower FAT by 30 years of age compared to controls. Furthermore, older CHR-P subjects (20+ years) displayed 4% higher FW in the forceps major (p < 0.05). Prospective analysis in CHR-P did not reveal a significant impact of illness onset on regional FAT or FW, suggesting that transition to psychosis is not marked by dramatic change in white matter microstructure. Instead, clinical high risk for psychosis-regardless of transition outcome-is characterized by subtle age-related white matter changes that occur in tandem with development.
Microstructure imaging seeks to noninvasively measure and map microscopic tissue features by pairing mathematical modeling with tailored MRI protocols. This article reviews an emerging paradigm that has the potential to provide a more detailed assessment of tissue microstructure-combined diffusion-relaxometry imaging. Combined diffusion-relaxometry acquisitions vary multiple MR contrast encodings-such as b-value, gradient direction, inversion time, and echo time-in a multidimensional acquisition space. When paired with suitable analysis techniques, this enables quantification of correlations and coupling between multiple MR parameters-such as diffusivity, T 1 , T 2 , and T 2 * . This opens the possibility of disentangling multiple tissue compartments (within voxels) that are indistinguishable with single-contrast scans, enabling a new generation of microstructural maps with improved biological sensitivity and specificity.
Conventionally, as a preprocessing step, functional MRI (fMRI) data are spatially smoothed before further analysis, be it for activation mapping on task-based fMRI or functional connectivity analysis on resting-state fMRI data. When images are smoothed volumetrically, however, isotropic Gaussian kernels are generally used, which do not adapt to the underlying brain structure. Alternatively, cortical surface smoothing procedures provide the benefit of adapting the smoothing process to the underlying morphology, but require projecting volumetric data on to the surface. In this paper, leveraging principles from graph signal processing, we propose a volumetric spatial smoothing method that takes advantage of the gray-white and pial cortical surfaces, and as such, adapts the filtering process to the underlying morphological details at each point in the cortex.
PURPOSE: Diffusion-weighted MRI is sensitive to incoherent tissue motion, which may confound the measured signal and subsequent analysis. We propose a "motion-compensated" gradient waveform design for tensor-valued diffusion encoding that negates the effects bulk motion and incoherent motion in the ballistic regime. METHODS: Motion compensation was achieved by constraining the magnitude of gradient waveform moment vectors. The constraint was incorporated into a numerical optimization framework, along with existing constraints that account for b-tensor shape, hardware restrictions, and concomitant field gradients. We evaluated the efficacy of encoding and motion compensation in simulations, and we demonstrated the approach by linear and planar b-tensor encoding in a healthy heart in vivo. RESULTS: The optimization framework produced asymmetric motion-compensated waveforms that yielded b-tensors of arbitrary shape with improved efficiency compared with previous designs for tensor-valued encoding, and equivalent efficiency to previous designs for linear (conventional) encoding. Technical feasibility was demonstrated in the heart in vivo, showing vastly improved data quality when using motion compensation. The optimization framework is available online in open source. CONCLUSION: Our gradient waveform design is both more flexible and efficient than previous methods, facilitating tensor-valued diffusion encoding in tissues in which motion would otherwise confound the signal. The proposed design exploits asymmetric encoding times, a single refocusing pulse or multiple refocusing pulses, and integrates compensation for concomitant gradient effects throughout the imaging volume.