Kettenbach J, Kacher DF, Koskinen SK, G SS, Nabavi A, Gering D, Tempany CM, Schwartz R, Kikinis R, Black PM, Jolesz FA. Interventional and Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2000;2:661–90.
The goal of the Image Guided Therapy Program, as the name implies, is to develop the use of imaging to guide minimally invasive therapy. The program combines interventional and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high-performance computing and novel therapeutic devices. In clinical practice the multidisciplinary program provides for the investigation of a wide range of interventional and surgical procedures. The Signa SP 0.5 T superconducting MRI system (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) has a 56-cm-wide vertical gap, allowing access to the patient and permitting the execution of interactive MRI-guided procedures. This system is integrated with an optical tracking system and utilizes flexible surface coils and MRI-compatible displays to facilitate procedures. Images are obtained with routine pulse sequences. Nearly real-time imaging, with fast gradient-recalled echo sequences, may be acquired at a rate of one image every 1.5 s with interactive image plane selection. Since 1994, more than 800 of these procedures, including various percutaneous procedures and open surgeries, have been successfully performed at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (Boston, MA).