A Review of Low-cost Ultrasound Compatible Phantoms

Groves LA, Keita M, Talla S, Kikinis R, Fichtinger G, Mousavi P, Camara M. A Review of Low-cost Ultrasound Compatible Phantoms. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2023;:1–12.


Ultrasound-compatible phantoms are used to develop novel US-based systems and train simulated medical interventions. The price difference between lab-made and commercially available ultrasound-compatible phantoms lead to the publication of many papers categorized as low-cost in the literature. The aim of this review was to improve the phantom selection process by summarizing the pertinent literature. We compiled papers on US-compatible spine, prostate, vascular, breast, kidney, and li ver phantoms. We reviewed papers for cost and accessibility, providing an overview of the materials, construction time, shelf life, needle insertion limits, and manufacturing and evaluation methods. This information was summarized by anatomy. The clinical application associated with each phantom was also reported for those interested in a particular intervention. Techniques and common practices for building low-cost phantoms were provided. Overall, this paper aims to summarize a breadth of ultrasound-compatible phantom research to enable informed phantom methods selection.

Last updated on 07/25/2023