We propose a novel approach to identify the foci of a neurological disorder based on anatomical and functional connectivity information. Specifically, we formulate a generative model that characterizes the network of abnormal functional connectivity emanating from the affected foci. This allows us to aggregate pairwise connectivity changes into a region-based representation of the disease. We employ the variational expectation-maximization algorithm to fit the model and subsequently identify both the afflicted regions and the differences in connectivity induced by the disorder. We demonstrate our method on a population study of schizophrenia.
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is an important tool that allows non-invasive investigation of the neural architecture of the brain. Advanced dMRI protocols typically require a large number of measurements for accurately tracing the fiber bundles and estimating the diffusion properties (such as, FA). However, the acquisition time of these sequences is prohibitively large for pediatric as well as patients with certain types of brain disorders (such as, dementia). Thus, fast echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisition sequences were proposed by the authors in [6, 16], which acquired multiple slices simultaneously to reduce scan time. The scan time in such cases drops proportionately to the number of simultaneous slice acquisitions (which we denote by R). While preliminary results in [6, 16] showed good reproducibility, yet the effect of simultaneous acquisitions on long range fiber connectivity and diffusion measures such as FA, is not known. In this work, we use multi-tensor based fiber connectivity to compare data acquired on two subjects with different acceleration factors (R = 1, 2, 3). We investigate and report the reproducibility of fiber bundles and diffusion measures between these scans on two subjects with different spatial resolutions, which is quite useful while designing neuroimaging studies.
The average diffusion propagator (ADP) obtained from diffusion MRI (dMRI) data encapsulates important structural properties of the underlying tissue. Measures derived from the ADP can be potentially used as markers of tissue integrity in characterizing several mental disorders. Thus, accurate estimation of the ADP is imperative for its use in neuroimaging studies. In this work, we propose a simple method for estimating the ADP by representing the acquired diffusion signal in the entire q-space using radial basis functions (RBF). We demonstrate our technique using two different RBF’s (generalized inverse multiquadric and Gaussian) and derive analytical expressions for the corresponding ADP’s. We also derive expressions for computing the solid angle orientation distribution function (ODF) for each of the RBF’s. Estimation of the weights of the RBF’s is done by enforcing positivity constraint on the estimated ADP or ODF. Finally, we validate our method on data obtained from a physical phantom with known fiber crossing of 45 degrees and also show comparison with the solid spherical harmonics method of . We also demonstrate our method on in-vivo human brain data.
This paper reports on a new computational methodology, inter-slice correspondence (ISC), for robustly aligning sets of 2D ultrasound (US) slices during image-guided medical procedures. Correspondences are derived from distinctive, local scale-invariant features, which are used in one-to-many matching of US slices in near real-time despite out-of-plane rotation, in addition to global in-plane similarity transforms, occlusion, missing tissue, US plane mirroring, changes in US probe depth settings. Experiments demonstrate that ISC can align manually-acquired US slices without probe tracking information in the context of image-guided neurosurgery, with an accuracy of 1.3mm. A novel reconstruction-without-calibration application based on ISC is proposed, where 3D US reconstruction results are very similar to those obtained via traditional phantom-based calibration.
In settings where high-level inferences are made based on registered image data, the registration uncertainty can contain important information. In this article, we propose a Bayesian non-rigid registration framework where conventional dissimilarity and regularization energies can be included in the likelihood and the prior distribution on deformations respectively through the use of Boltzmann's distribution. The posterior distribution is characterized using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods with the effect of the Boltzmann temperature hyper-parameters marginalized under broad uninformative hyper-prior distributions. The MCMC chain permits estimation of the most likely deformation as well as the associated uncertainty. On synthetic examples, we demonstrate the ability of the method to identify the maximum a posteriori estimate and the associated posterior uncertainty, and demonstrate that the posterior distribution can be non-Gaussian. Additionally, results from registering clinical data acquired during neurosurgery for resection of brain tumor are provided; we compare the method to single transformation results from a deterministic optimizer and introduce methods that summarize the high-dimensional uncertainty. At the site of resection, the registration uncertainty increases and the marginal distribution on deformations is shown to be multi-modal.
Traditional models of the human language circuitry encompass three cortical areas, Broca's, Geschwind's and Wernicke's, and their connectivity through white matter fascicles. The neural connectivity deep to these cortical areas remains poorly understood, as does the macroscopic functional organization of the cortico-subcortical language circuitry. In an effort to expand current knowledge, we combined functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging to explore subject-specific structural and functional macroscopic connectivity, focusing on Broca's area. Fascicles were studied using diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking seeded from volumes placed manually within the white matter. White matter fascicles and fMRI-derived clusters (antonym-generation task) of positive and negative blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal were co-registered with 3-D renderings of the brain in 12 healthy subjects. Fascicles connecting BOLD-derived clusters were analyzed within specific cortical areas: Broca's, with the pars triangularis, the pars opercularis, and the pars orbitaris; Geschwind's and Wernicke's; the premotor cortex, the dorsal supplementary motor area, the middle temporal gyrus, the dorsal prefrontal cortex and the frontopolar region. We found a functional connectome divisible into three systems-anterior, superior and inferior-around the insula, more complex than previously thought, particularly with respect to a new extended Broca's area. The extended Broca's area involves two new fascicles: the operculo-premotor fascicle comprised of well-organized U-shaped fibers that connect the pars opercularis with the premotor region; and (2) the triangulo-orbitaris system comprised of intermingled U-shaped fibers that connect the pars triangularis with the pars orbitaris. The findings enhance our understanding of language function.
This paper proposes a method for aligning image volumes acquired from different imaging modalities (e.g. MR, CT) based on 3D scale-invariant image features. A novel method for encoding invariant feature geometry and appearance is developed, based on the assumption of locally linear intensity relationships, providing a solution to poor repeatability of feature detection in different image modalities. The encoding method is incorporated into a probabilistic feature-based model for multi-modal image alignment. The model parameters are estimated via a group-wise alignment algorithm, that iteratively alternates between estimating a feature-based model from feature data, then realigning feature data to the model, converging to a stable alignment solution with few pre-processing or pre-alignment requirements. The resulting model can be used to align multi-modal image data with the benefits of invariant feature correspondence: globally optimal solutions, high efficiency and low memory usage. The method is tested on the difficult RIRE data set of CT, T1, T2, PD and MP-RAGE brain images of subjects exhibiting significant inter-subject variability due to pathology.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to investigate the performance of an interactive image segmentation method for radiotherapy contouring on computed tomography (CT) images. Manual segmentation is a time consuming task that is essential for treatment. Due to the low contrast of target structures, their similarity to surrounding tissue, and the required precision for the final segmentation Result, automatic methods do not exhibit robust performance. Furthermore, when an automatic segmentation algorithm produces errors at the structure boundary, they are tedious for a human user to correct. For this experiment, it is hypothesized that an interactive algorithm can attain ground truth results in a fraction of the the time needed for manual segmentation. METHODS: The proposed method is interactive segmentation that tightly couples a human "expert user" with a framework from computer vision called "active contours" to create a closed loop control system. As a Result, the strengths (i.e., quickly delineating complicated target boundaries) of the automatic method can be leveraged by the user, who guides the algorithm based on his expert knowledge throughout the process. Experimental segmentations have been performed both with and without the control system feedback, the accuracy of the resulting labels will be compared along with the time required to create the labels. RESULTS: Four structures were evaluated: left/right eye ball, brain stem, and mandible. Tests show that virtually identical segmentations are performed with and without control system feedback. However, the time required to complete the task is significantly less than what is needed for fully manual contouring. CONCLUSION: Interactive segmentation using control system feedback is shown to reduce the time and effort needed to segment targets in CT volumes of the head and neck region.
The clustering of fibers into bundles is an important task in studying the structure and function of white matter. Existing technology mostly relies on geometrical features, such as the shape of fibers, and thus only provides very limited information about the neuroanatomical function of the brain. We advance this issue by proposing a multinomial representation of fibers decoding their connectivity to gray matter regions. We then simplify the clustering task by first deriving a compact encoding of our representation via the logit transformation. Furthermore, we define a distance between fibers that is in theory invariant to parcellation biases and is equivalent to a family of Riemannian metrics on the simplex of multinomial probabilities. We apply our method to longitudinal scans of two healthy subjects showing high reproducibility of the resulting fiber bundles without needing to register the corresponding scans to a common coordinate system. We confirm these qualitative findings via a simple statistical analyse of the fiber bundles.
This paper investigates a diffeomorphic point-set registration based on non-stationary mixture models. The goal is to improve the non-linear registration of anatomical structures by representing each point as a general non-stationary kernel that provides information about the shape of that point. Our framework generalizes work done by others that use stationary models. We achieve this by integrating the shape at each point when calculating the point-set similarity and transforming it according to the calculated deformation. We also restrict the non-rigid transform to the space of symmetric diffeomorphisms. Our algorithm is validated in synthetic and human datasets in two different applications: fiber bundle and lung airways registration. Our results shows that non-stationary mixture models are superior to Gaussian mixture models and methods that do not take into account the shape of each point.
This paper presents feature-based alignment (FBA), a general method for efficient and robust model-to-image alignment. Volumetric images, e.g. CT scans of the human body, are modeled probabilistically as a collage of 3D scale-invariant image features within a normalized reference space. Features are incorporated as a latent random variable and marginalized out in computing a maximum a posteriori alignment solution. The model is learned from features extracted in pre-aligned training images, then fit to features extracted from a new image to identify a globally optimal locally linear alignment solution. Novel techniques are presented for determining local feature orientation and efficiently encoding feature intensity in 3D. Experiments involving difficult magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain demonstrate FBA achieves alignment accuracy similar to widely-used registration methods, while requiring a fraction of the memory and computation resources and offering a more robust, globally optimal solution. Experiments on CT human body scans demonstrate FBA as an effective system for automatic human body alignment where other alignment methods break down.
Skin toxicity is the most common side effect of breast cancer radiotherapy and impairs the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. We, along with other researchers, have recently found quantitative ultrasound to be effective as a skin toxicity assessment tool. Although more reliable than standard clinical evaluations (visual observation and palpation), the current procedure for ultrasound-based skin toxicity measurements requires manual delineation of the skin layers (i.e., epidermis-dermis and dermis-hypodermis interfaces) on each ultrasound B-mode image. Manual skin segmentation is time consuming and subjective. Moreover, radiation-induced skin injury may decrease image contrast between the dermis and hypodermis, which increases the difficulty of delineation. Therefore, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation tool (ASST) based on the active contour model with two significant modifications: (i) The proposed algorithm introduces a novel dual-curve scheme for the double skin layer extraction, as opposed to the original single active contour method. (ii) The proposed algorithm is based on a geometric contour framework as opposed to the previous parametric algorithm. This ASST algorithm was tested on a breast cancer image database of 730 ultrasound breast images (73 ultrasound studies of 23 patients). We compared skin segmentation results obtained with the ASST with manual contours performed by two physicians. The average percentage differences in skin thickness between the ASST measurement and that of each physician were less than 5% (4.8 ± 17.8% and -3.8 ± 21.1%, respectively). In summary, we have developed an automatic skin segmentation method that ensures objective assessment of radiation-induced changes in skin thickness. Our ultrasound technology offers a unique opportunity to quantify tissue injury in a more meaningful and reproducible manner than the subjective assessments currently employed in the clinic.
Prognosis and diagnosis of cardiac diseases frequently require quantitative evaluation of the ventricle volume, mass, and ejection fraction. The delineation of the myocardial wall is involved in all of these evaluations, which is a challenging task due to large variations in myocardial shapes and image quality. In this paper, we present an automatic method for extracting the myocardial wall of the left and right ventricles from cardiac CT images. In the method, the left and right ventricles are located sequentially, in which each ventricle is detected by first identifying the endocardium and then segmenting the epicardium. To this end, the endocardium is localized by utilizing its geometric features obtained on-line from a CT image. After that, a variational region-growing model is employed to extract the epicardium of the ventricles. In particular, the location of the endocardium of the left ventricle is determined via using an active contour model on the blood-pool surface. To localize the right ventricle, the active contour model is applied on a heart surface extracted based on the left ventricle segmentation result. The robustness and accuracy of the proposed approach is demonstrated by experimental results from 33 human and 12 pig CT images.
The planning and evaluation of left atrial ablation procedures are commonly based on the segmentation of the left atrium, which is a challenging task due to large anatomical variations. In this paper, we propose an automatic approach for segmenting the left atrium from magnetic resonance imagery. The segmentation problem is formulated as a problem in variational region growing. In particular, the method starts locally by searching for a seed region of the left atrium from an MR slice. A global constraint is imposed by applying a shape prior to the left atrium represented by Zernike moments. The overall growing process is guided by the robust statistics of intensities from the seed region along with the shape prior to capture the entire atrial region. The robustness and accuracy of our approach are demonstrated by experimental results from 64 human MR images.
In this paper we evaluate the accuracy of warping of neuro-images using brain deformation predicted by means of a patient-specific biomechanical model against registration using a BSpline-based free form deformation algorithm. Unlike the BSpline algorithm, biomechanics-based registration does not require an intra-operative MR image which is very expensive and cumbersome to acquire. Only sparse intra-operative data on the brain surface is sufficient to compute deformation for the whole brain. In this contribution the deformation fields obtained from both methods are qualitatively compared and overlaps of Canny edges extracted from the images are examined. We define an edge based Hausdorff distance metric to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of registration for these two algorithms. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations indicate that our biomechanics-based registration algorithm, despite using much less input data, has at least as high registration accuracy as that of the BSpline algorithm.
The large volume of material to be learned in biomedical disciplines requires optimizing the efficiency of instruction. In prior work with computer-based instruction of neuroanatomy, it was relatively efficient for learners to master whole anatomy and then transfer to learning sectional anatomy. It may, however, be more efficient to continuously integrate learning of whole and sectional anatomy. A study of computer-based learning of neuroanatomy was conducted to compare a basic transfer paradigm for learning whole and sectional neuroanatomy with a method in which the two forms of representation were interleaved (alternated). For all experimental groups, interactive computer programs supported an approach to instruction called adaptive exploration. Each learning trial consisted of time-limited exploration of neuroanatomy, self-timed testing, and graphical feedback. The primary result of this study was that interleaved learning of whole and sectional neuroanatomy was more efficient than the basic transfer method, without cost to long-term retention or generalization of knowledge to recognizing new images (Visible Human and MRI).
Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others' mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind) may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and regional T1-lesion load of association fiber tracts interconnecting cortical regions related to visual and emotion processing (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus). Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed), processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex) and socially relevant information (left temporal pole). Thus, both disconnection mechanism due to white matter lesions and cortical thinning of specific brain areas may result in cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis affecting emotion and mental state processing from facial expressions and contributing to everyday and social life difficulties of these patients.
Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) represent a population at high risk for developing schizophrenia, as well as learning disabilities. Deficits in visuo-spatial memory are thought to underlie some of the cognitive disabilities. Neuronal substrates of visuo-spatial memory include the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), two tracts that comprise the ventral visual stream. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) is an established method to evaluate white matter (WM) connections in vivo. DT-MRI scans of nine 22q11.2DS young adults and nine matched healthy subjects were acquired. Tractography of the IFOF and the ILF was performed. DT-MRI indices, including Fractional anisotropy (FA, measure of WM changes), axial diffusivity (AD, measure of axonal changes) and radial diffusivity (RD, measure of myelin changes) of each of the tracts and each group were measured and compared. The 22q11.2DS group showed statistically significant reductions of FA in IFOF in the left hemisphere. Additionally, reductions of AD were found in the IFOF and the ILF in both hemispheres. These findings might be the consequence of axonal changes, which is possibly due to fewer, thinner, or less organized fibers. No changes in RD were detected in any of the tracts delineated, which is in contrast to findings in schizophrenia patients where increases in RD are believed to be indicative of demyelination. We conclude that reduced axonal changes may be key to understanding the underlying pathology of WM leading to the visuo-spatial phenotype in 22q11.2DS.
Segmentation of injured or unusual anatomic structures in medical imagery is a problem that has continued to elude fully automated solutions. In this paper, the goal of easy-to-use and consistent interactive segmentation is transformed into a control synthesis problem. A nominal level set partial differential equation (PDE) is assumed to be given; this open-loop system achieves correct segmentation under ideal conditions, but does not agree with a human expert's ideal boundary for real image data. Perturbing the state and dynamics of a level set PDE via the accumulated user input and an observer-like system leads to desirable closed-loop behavior. The input structure is designed such that a user can stabilize the boundary in some desired state without needing to understand any mathematical parameters. Effectiveness of the technique is illustrated with applications to the challenging segmentations of a patellar tendon in magnetic resonance and a shattered femur in computed tomography.
PURPOSE: Diffusion encoding with asymmetric gradient waveforms is appealing because the asymmetry provides superior efficiency. However, concomitant gradients may cause a residual gradient moment at the end of the waveform, which can cause significant signal error and image artifacts. The purpose of this study was to develop an asymmetric waveform designs for tensor-valued diffusion encoding that is not sensitive to concomitant gradients. METHODS: The "Maxwell index" was proposed as a scalar invariant to capture the effect of concomitant gradients. Optimization of "Maxwell-compensated" waveforms was performed in which this index was constrained. Resulting waveforms were compared to waveforms from literature, in terms of the measured and predicted impact of concomitant gradients, by numerical analysis as well as experiments in a phantom and in a healthy human brain. RESULTS: Maxwell-compensated waveforms with Maxwell indices below 100 (mT/m) ms showed negligible signal bias in both numerical analysis and experiments. By contrast, several waveforms from literature showed gross signal bias under the same conditions, leading to a signal bias that was large enough to markedly affect parameter maps. Experimental results were accurately predicted by theory. CONCLUSION: Constraining the Maxwell index in the optimization of asymmetric gradient waveforms yields efficient diffusion encoding that negates the effects of concomitant fields while enabling arbitrary shapes of the b-tensor. This waveform design is especially useful in combination with strong gradients, long encoding times, thick slices, simultaneous multi-slice acquisition, and large FOVs.
Computational biomechanics of the brain for neurosurgery is an emerging area of research recently gaining in importance and practical applications. This review paper presents the contributions of the Intelligent Systems for Medicine Laboratory and its collaborators to this field, discussing the modeling approaches adopted and the methods developed for obtaining the numerical solutions. We adopt a physics-based modeling approach and describe the brain deformation in mechanical terms (such as displacements, strains, and stresses), which can be computed using a biomechanical model, by solving a continuum mechanics problem. We present our modeling approaches related to geometry creation, boundary conditions, loading, and material properties. From the point of view of solution methods, we advocate the use of fully nonlinear modeling approaches, capable of capturing very large deformations and nonlinear material behavior. We discuss finite element and meshless domain discretization, the use of the total Lagrangian formulation of continuum mechanics, and explicit time integration for solving both time-accurate and steady-state problems. We present the methods developed for handling contacts and for warping 3D medical images using the results of our simulations. We present two examples to showcase these methods: brain shift estimation for image registration and brain deformation computation for neuronavigation in epilepsy treatment.
Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Antonio De Salles, Guillaume Coll, Youssef El Ouadih, Rémi Chaix, Jérôme Coste, Franck Durif, Nikos Makris, and Ron Kikinis. 8/2019. “MRI Atlas of the Human Deep Brain.” Front Neurol, 10, Pp. 851.Abstract
Mastering detailed anatomy of the human deep brain in clinical neurosciences is challenging. Although numerous pioneering works have gathered a large dataset of structural and topographic information, it is still difficult to transfer this knowledge into practice, even with advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Thus, classical histological atlases continue to be used to identify structures for stereotactic targeting in functional neurosurgery. Physicians mainly use these atlases as a template co-registered with the patient's brain. However, it is possible to directly identify stereotactic targets on MRI scans, enabling personalized targeting. In order to help clinicians directly identify deep brain structures relevant to present and future medical applications, we built a volumetric MRI atlas of the deep brain (MDBA) on a large scale (infra millimetric). Twelve hypothalamic, 39 subthalamic, 36 telencephalic, and 32 thalamic structures were identified, contoured, and labeled. Nineteen coronal, 18 axial, and 15 sagittal MRI plates were created. Although primarily designed for direct labeling, the anatomic space was also subdivided in twelfths of AC-PC distance, leading to proportional scaling in the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes. This extensive work is now available to clinicians and neuroscientists, offering another representation of the human deep brain ([https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/] [hal-02116633]). The atlas may also be used by computer scientists who are interested in deciphering the topography of this complex region.
Intraoperative tissue deformation, known as brain shift, decreases the benefit of using preoperative images to guide neurosurgery. Non-rigid registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) to intraoperative ultrasound (US) has been proposed as a means to compensate for brain shift. We focus on the initial registration from MR to predurotomy US. We present a method that builds on previous work to address the need for accuracy and generality of MR-iUS registration algorithms in multi-site clinical data. To improve accuracy of registration, we use high-dimensional texture attributes instead of image intensities and propose to replace the standard difference-based attribute matching with correlation-based attribute matching. We also present a strategy that deals explicitly with the large field-of-view mismatch between MR and iUS images. We optimize key parameters across independent MR-iUS brain tumor datasets acquired at three different institutions, with a total of 43 tumor patients and 758 corresponding landmarks to validate the registration algorithm. Despite differences in imaging protocols, patient demographics and landmark distributions, our algorithm was able to reduce landmark errors prior to registration in three data sets (5.37 ± 4.27, 4.18 ± 1.97 and 6.18 ± 3.38 mm, respectively) to a consistently low level (2.28 ± 0.71, 2.08 ± 0.37 and 2.24 ± 0.78 mm, respectively). Our algorithm is compared to 15 other algorithms that have been previously tested on MR-iUS registration and it is competitive with the state-of-the-art on multiple datasets. We show that our algorithm has one of the lowest errors in all datasets (accuracy), and this is achieved while sticking to a fixed set of parameters for multi-site data (generality). In contrast, other algorithms/tools of similar performance need per-dataset parameter tuning (high accuracy but lower generality), and those that stick to fixed parameters have larger errors or inconsistent performance (generality but not the top accuracy). We further characterized landmark errors according to brain regions and tumor types, a topic so far missing in the literature. We found that landmark errors were higher in high-grade than low-grade glioma patients, and higher in tumor regions than in other brain regions.
PURPOSE: In image-guided surgery for glioma removal, neurosurgeons usually plan the resection on images acquired before surgery and use them for guidance during the subsequent intervention. However, after the surgical procedure has begun, the preplanning images become unreliable due to the brain shift phenomenon, caused by modifications of anatomical structures and imprecisions in the neuronavigation system. To obtain an updated view of the resection cavity, a solution is to collect intraoperative data, which can be additionally acquired at different stages of the procedure in order to provide a better understanding of the resection. A spatial mapping between structures identified in subsequent acquisitions would be beneficial. We propose here a fully automated segmentation-based registration method to register ultrasound (US) volumes acquired at multiple stages of neurosurgery. METHODS: We chose to segment sulci and falx cerebri in US volumes, which remain visible during resection. To automatically segment these elements, first we trained a convolutional neural network on manually annotated structures in volumes acquired before the opening of the dura mater and then we applied it to segment corresponding structures in different surgical phases. Finally, the obtained masks are used to register US volumes acquired at multiple resection stages. RESULTS: Our method reduces the mean target registration error (mTRE) between volumes acquired before the opening of the dura mater and during resection from 3.49 mm (± 1.55 mm) to 1.36 mm (± 0.61 mm). Moreover, the mTRE between volumes acquired before opening the dura mater and at the end of the resection is reduced from 3.54 mm (± 1.75 mm) to 2.05 mm (± 1.12 mm). CONCLUSION: The segmented structures demonstrated to be good candidates to register US volumes acquired at different neurosurgical phases. Therefore, our solution can compensate brain shift in neurosurgical procedures involving intraoperative US data.