Publications by Year: 2006


Estepar RSJ, Kubicki M, Shenton M, Westin CF. A kernel-based approach for user-guided fiber bundling using diffusion tensor data. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1:2626–9.
This paper describes a novel user-guided method for grouping fibers from diffusion tensor MRI tractography into bundles. The method finds fibers, that passing through user-defined ROIs, still fit to the underlying data model given by the diffusion tensor. This is achieved by filtering the data and the ROIs with a kernel derived from a geodesic metric between tensors. A standard approach using binary decisions defining tracts passing through ROIs is critically dependent on ROIs that includes all trace lines of interest. The method described in this paper uses a softer decision mechanism through a kernel which enables grouping of bundles driven less exact, or even single point, ROIs. The method analyzes the responses obtained from the convolution with a kernel function along the fiber with the ROI data. Results in real data shows the feasibility of the approach to fiber bundling.
Estepar RSJ, Stylopoulos N, Ellis RE, Samset E, Westin CF, Thompson C, Vosburgh K. Towards scarless surgery: an endoscopic-ultrasound navigation system for transgastric access procedures. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;9(Pt 1):445–53.
Scarless surgery is a new and very promising technique that can mark a new era in surgical procedures. We have created and validated a navigation system for endoscopic and transgastric access interventions in in vivo pilot studies. The system provides augmented visual feedback and additional contextual information by establishing a correspondence between the real time endoscopic ultrasound image and a preoperative CT volume using rigid registration. The system enhances the operator’s ability to interpret the ultrasound image reducing the mental burden used in probe placement. Our analysis shows that rigid registration is accurate enough to help physicians in endoscopic abdominal surgery where, by using preoperative data for context and real-time imaging for targeting, distortions that limit the use of only preoperative data can be overcome.
Yang Y, George S, Martin DR, Tannenbaum AR, Giddens DP. 3D modeling of patient-specific geometries of portal veins using MR images. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1:5290–3.
In this note, we present an approach for developing patient-specific 3D models of portal veins to provide geometric boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the blood flow inside portal veins. The study is based on MRI liver images of individual patients to which we apply image registration and segmentation techniques and inlet and outlet velocity profiles acquired using PC-MRI in the same imaging session. The portal vein and its connected veins are then extracted and visualized in 3D as surfaces. Image registration is performed to align shifted images between each breath-hold when the MRI images are acquired. The image segmentation method first labels each voxel in the 3D volume of interest by using a Bayesian probability approach, and then isolates the portal veins via active surfaces initialized inside the vessel. The method was tested with two healthy volunteers. In both cases, the main portal vein and its connected veins were successfully modeled and visualized.
Färneback G, Westin CF. Affine and deformable registration based on polynomial expansion. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;9(Pt 1):857–64.
This paper presents a registration framework based on the polynomial expansion transform. The idea of polynomial expansion is that the image is locally approximated by polynomials at each pixel. Starting with observations of how the coefficients of ideal linear and quadratic polynomials change under translation and affine transformation, algorithms are developed to estimate translation and compute affine and deformable registration between a fixed and a moving image, from the polynomial expansion coefficients. All algorithms can be used for signals of any dimensionality. The algorithms are evaluated on medical data.
Weisenfeld NI, Mewes AUJ, Warfield SK. Highly accurate segmentation of brain tissue and subcortical gray matter from newborn MRI. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;9(Pt 1):199–206.
The segmentation of newborn brain MRI is important for assessing and directing treatment options for premature infants at risk for developmental disorders, abnormalities, or even death. Segmentation of infant brain MRI is particularly challenging when compared with the segmentation of images acquired from older children and adults. We sought to develop a fully automated segmentation strategy and present here a Bayesian approach utilizing an atlas of priors derived from previous segmentations and a new scheme for automatically selecting and iteratively refining classifier training data using the STAPLE algorithm. Results have been validated by comparison to hand-drawn segmentations.
Nain D, Haker S, Bobick A, Tannenbaum A. Shape-driven 3D segmentation using spherical wavelets. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;9(Pt 1):66–74.
This paper presents a novel active surface segmentation algorithm using a multiscale shape representation and prior. We define a parametric model of a surface using spherical wavelet functions and learn a prior probability distribution over the wavelet coefficients to model shape variations at different scales and spatial locations in a training set. Based on this representation, we derive a parametric active surface evolution using the multiscale prior coefficients as parameters for our optimization procedure to naturally include the prior in the segmentation framework. Additionally, the optimization method can be applied in a coarse-to-fine manner. We apply our algorithm to the segmentation of brain caudate nucleus, of interest in the study of schizophrenia. Our validation shows our algorithm is computationally efficient and outperforms the Active Shape Model algorithm by capturing finer shape details.
Warfield SK, Zou KH, Wells WM III. Validation of Image Segmentation by Estimating Rater Bias and Variance. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;9(Pt 2):839–47.
The accuracy and precision of segmentations of medical images has been difficult to quantify in the absence of a "ground truth" or reference standard segmentation for clinical data. Although physical or digital phantoms can help by providing a reference standard, they do not allow the reproduction of the full range of imaging and anatomical characteristics observed in clinical data. An alternative assessment approach is to compare to segmentations generated by domain experts. Segmentations may be generated by raters who are trained experts or by automated image analysis algorithms. Typically these segmentations differ due to intra-rater and inter-rater variability. The most appropriate way to compare such segmentations has been unclear. We present here a new algorithm to enable the estimation of performance characteristics, and a true labeling, from observations of segmentations of imaging data where segmentation labels may be ordered or continuous measures. This approach may be used with, amongst others, surface, distance transform or level set representations of segmentations, and can be used to assess whether or not a rater consistently over-estimates or under-estimates the position of a boundary.
Ziyan U, Tuch D, Westin CF. Segmentation of thalamic nuclei from DTI using spectral clustering. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;9(Pt 2):807–14.
Recent work shows that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can help resolving thalamic nuclei based on the characteristic fiber orientation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical striations within each nucleus. In this paper we describe a novel segmentation method based on spectral clustering. We use Markovian relaxation to handle spatial information in a natural way, and we explicitly minimize the normalized cut criteria of the spectral clustering for a better optimization. Using this modified spectral clustering algorithm, we can resolve the organization of the thalamic nuclei into groups and subgroups solely based on the voxel affinity matrix, avoiding the need for explicitly defined cluster centers. The identification of nuclear subdivisions can facilitate localization of functional activation and pathology to individual nuclear subgroups.
Donnell LO, Westin CF. High-dimensional white matter atlas generation and group analysis. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;9(Pt 2):243–51.
We present a two-step process including white matter atlas generation and automatic segmentation. Our atlas generation method is based on population fiber clustering. We produce an atlas which contains high-dimensional descriptors of fiber bundles as well as anatomical label information. We use the atlas to automatically segment tractography in the white matter of novel subjects and we present quantitative results (FA measurements) in segmented white matter regions from a small population. We demonstrate reproducibility of these measurements across scans. In addition, we introduce the idea of using clustering for automatic matching of anatomical structures across hemispheres.
Pohl KM, Fisher J, Shenton M, McCarley RW, Grimson EL, Kikinis R, Wells WM. Logarithm odds maps for shape representation. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2006;9(Pt 2):955–63.
The concept of the Logarithm of the Odds (LogOdds) is frequently used in areas such as artificial neural networks, economics, and biology. Here, we utilize LogOdds for a shape representation that demonstrates desirable properties for medical imaging. For example, the representation encodes the shape of an anatomical structure as well as the variations within that structure. These variations are embedded in a vector space that relates to a probabilistic model. We apply our representation to a voxel based segmentation algorithm. We do so by embedding the manifold of Signed Distance Maps (SDM) into the linear space of LogOdds. The LogOdds variant is superior to the SDM model in an experiment segmenting 20 subjects into subcortical structures. We also use LogOdds in the non-convex interpolation between space conditioned distributions. We apply this model to a longitudinal schizophrenia study using quadratic splines. The resulting time-continuous simulation of the schizophrenic aging process has a higher accuracy then a model based on convex interpolation.