BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Free water in the posterior substantia nigra obtained from a bi-tensor diffusion MR imaging model has been shown to significantly increase over 1- and 4-year periods in patients with early-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease compared with healthy controls, which suggests that posterior substantia nigra free water may be an idiopathic Parkinson disease progression biomarker. Due to the known temporal posterior-to-anterior substantia nigra degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson disease, we assessed longitudinal changes in free water in both the posterior and anterior substantia nigra in patients with later-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease and age-matched healthy controls for comparison. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson disease and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects were assessed on the same 3T MR imaging scanner at baseline and after approximately 3 years. RESULTS: Baseline mean idiopathic Parkinson disease duration was 7.1 years. Both anterior and posterior substantia nigra free water showed significant intergroup differences at baseline (< .001 and= .014, respectively, idiopathic Parkinson disease versus healthy controls); however, only anterior substantia nigra free water showed significant longitudinal group × time interaction increases (= .021, idiopathic Parkinson disease versus healthy controls). There were no significant longitudinal group × time interaction differences found for conventional diffusion tensor imaging or free water-corrected DTI assessments in either the anterior or posterior substantia nigra. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide further evidence supporting substantia nigra free water as a promising disease-progression biomarker in idiopathic Parkinson disease that may help to identify disease-modifying therapies if used in future clinical trials. Our novel finding of longitudinal increases in anterior but not posterior substantia nigra free water is potentially a result of the much longer disease duration of our cohort compared with previously studied cohorts and the known posterior-to-anterior substantia nigra degeneration that occurs over time in idiopathic Parkinson disease.
BACKGROUND: Extracellular free water within cerebral white matter tissue has been shown to increase with age and pathology, yet the cognitive consequences of free water in typical aging prior to the development of neurodegenerative disease remains unclear. Understanding the contribution of free water to cognitive function in older adults may provide important insight into the neural mechanisms of the cognitive aging process. METHODS: A diffusion-weighted MRI measure of extracellular free water as well as a commonly used diffusion MRI metric (fractional anisotropy) along nine bilateral white matter pathways were examined for their relationship with cognitive function assessed by the NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery in 47 older adults (mean age = 74.4 years, SD = 5.4 years, range = 65-85 years). Probabilistic tractography at the 99th percentile level of probability (Tracts Constrained by Underlying Anatomy; TRACULA) was utilized to produce the pathways on which microstructural characteristics were overlaid and examined for their contribution to cognitive function independent of age, education, and gender. RESULTS: When examining the 99th percentile probability core white matter pathway derived from TRACULA, poorer fluid cognitive ability was related to higher mean free water values across the angular and cingulum bundles of the cingulate gyrus, as well as the corticospinal tract and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. There was no relationship between cognition and mean FA or free water-adjusted FA across the 99th percentile core white matter pathway. Crystallized cognitive ability was not associated with any of the diffusion measures. When examining cognitive domains comprising the NIH Toolbox Fluid Cognition index relationships with these white matter pathways, mean free water demonstrated strong hemispheric and functional specificity for cognitive performance, whereas mean FA was not related to age or cognition across the 99th percentile pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular free water within white matter appears to increase with normal aging, and higher values are associated with significantly lower fluid but not crystallized cognitive functions. When using TRACULA to estimate the core of a white matter pathway, a higher degree of free water appears to be highly specific to the pathways associated with memory, working memory, and speeded decision-making performance, whereas no such relationship existed with FA. These data suggest that free water may play an important role in the cognitive aging process, and may serve as a stronger and more specific indicator of early cognitive decline than traditional diffusion MRI measures, such as FA.
PURPOSE: To optimize diffusion-relaxation MRI with tensor-valued diffusion encoding for precise estimation of compartment-specific fractions, diffusivities, and T values within a two-compartment model of white matter, and to explore the approach in vivo. METHODS: Sampling protocols featuring different b-values (b), b-tensor shapes (b ), and echo times (TE) were optimized using Cramér-Rao lower bounds (CRLB). Whole-brain data were acquired in children, adults, and elderly with white matter lesions. Compartment fractions, diffusivities, and T values were estimated in a model featuring two microstructural compartments represented by a "stick" and a "zeppelin." RESULTS: Precise parameter estimates were enabled by sampling protocols featuring seven or more "shells" with unique b/b /TE-combinations. Acquisition times were approximately 15 minutes. In white matter of adults, the "stick" compartment had a fraction of approximately 0.5 and, compared with the "zeppelin" compartment, featured lower isotropic diffusivities (0.6 vs. 1.3 μm /ms) but higher T values (85 vs. 65 ms). Children featured lower "stick" fractions (0.4). White matter lesions exhibited high "zeppelin" isotropic diffusivities (1.7 μm /ms) and T values (150 ms). CONCLUSIONS: Diffusion-relaxation MRI with tensor-valued diffusion encoding expands the set of microstructure parameters that can be precisely estimated and therefore increases their specificity to biological quantities.
The corticospinal tract (CST) is one of the most well studied tracts in human neuroanatomy. Its clinical significance can be demonstrated in many notable traumatic conditions and diseases such as stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). With the advent of diffusion MRI and tractography the computational representation of the human CST in a 3D model became available. However, the representation of the entire CST and, specifically, the hand motor area has remained elusive. In this paper we propose a novel method, using manually drawn ROIs based on robustly identifiable neuroanatomic structures to delineate the entire CST and isolate its hand motor representation as well as to estimate their variability and generate a database of their volume, length and biophysical parameters. Using 37 healthy human subjects we performed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the CST and the hand-related motor fiber tracts (HMFTs). Finally, we have created variability heat maps from 37 subjects for both the aforementioned tracts, which could be utilized as a reference for future studies with clinical focus to explore neuropathology in both trauma and disease states.
PURPOSE: The dataset contains annotations for lung nodules collected by the Lung Imaging Data Consortium and Image Database Resource Initiative (LIDC) stored as standard DICOM objects. The annotations accompany a collection of computed tomography (CT) scans for over 1000 subjects annotated by multiple expert readers, and correspond to "nodules ≥ 3 mm", defined as any lesion considered to be a nodule with greatest in-plane dimension in the range 3-30 mm regardless of presumed histology. The present dataset aims to simplify reuse of the data with the readily available tools, and is targeted towards researchers interested in the analysis of lung CT images. ACQUISITION AND VALIDATION METHODS: Open source tools were utilized to parse the project-specific XML representation of LIDC-IDRI annotations and save the result as standard DICOM objects. Validation procedures focused on establishing compliance of the resulting objects with the standard, consistency of the data between the DICOM and project-specific representation, and evaluating interoperability with the existing tools. DATA FORMAT AND USAGE NOTES: The dataset utilizes DICOM Segmentation objects for storing annotations of the lung nodules, and DICOM Structured Reporting objects for communicating qualitative evaluations (nine attributes) and quantitative measurements (three attributes) associated with the nodules. The total of 875 subjects contain 6859 nodule annotations. Clustering of the neighboring annotations resulted in 2651 distinct nodules. The data are available in TCIA at https://doi.org/10.7937/TCIA.2018.h7umfurq. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: The standardized dataset maintains the content of the original contribution of the LIDC-IDRI consortium, and should be helpful in developing automated tools for characterization of lung lesions and image phenotyping. In addition to those properties, the representation of the present dataset makes it more FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) for the research community, and enables its integration with other standardized data collections.
Alex Zwanenburg, Martin Vallières, Mahmoud A Abdalah, Hugo JWL Aerts, Vincent Andrearczyk, Aditya Apte, Saeed Ashrafinia, Spyridon Bakas, Roelof J Beukinga, Ronald Boellaard, Marta Bogowicz, Luca Boldrini, Irène Buvat, Gary JR Cook, Christos Davatzikos, Adrien Depeursinge, Marie-Charlotte Desseroit, Nicola Dinapoli, Cuong Viet Dinh, Sebastian Echegaray, Issam El Naqa, Andriy Y Fedorov, Roberto Gatta, Robert J Gillies, Vicky Goh, Michael Götz, Matthias Guckenberger, Sung Min Ha, Mathieu Hatt, Fabian Isensee, Philippe Lambin, Stefan Leger, Ralph TH Leijenaar, Jacopo Lenkowicz, Fiona Lippert, Are Losnegård, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Olivier Morin, Henning Müller, Sandy Napel, Christophe Nioche, Fanny Orlhac, Sarthak Pati, Elisabeth AG Pfaehler, Arman Rahmim, Arvind UK Rao, Jonas Scherer, Muhammad Musib Siddique, Nanna M Sijtsema, Jairo Socarras Fernandez, Emiliano Spezi, Roel JHM Steenbakkers, Stephanie Tanadini-Lang, Daniela Thorwarth, Esther GC Troost, Taman Upadhaya, Vincenzo Valentini, Lisanne V van Dijk, Joost van Griethuysen, Floris HP van Velden, Philip Whybra, Christian Richter, and Steffen Löck. 5/2020. “The Image Biomarker Standardization Initiative: Standardized Quantitative Radiomics for High-Throughput Image-based Phenotyping.” Radiology, 295, 2, Pp. 328-38.Abstract