MK-Curve Improves Sensitivity to Identify White Matter Alterations in Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

Citation:

Zhang F, Cho KIK, Tang Y, Zhang T, Kelly S, Biase MD, Xu L, Li H, Matcheri K, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, et al. MK-Curve Improves Sensitivity to Identify White Matter Alterations in Clinical High Risk for Psychosis. Neuroimage. 2021;226 :117564.

Date Published:

2021 02 01

Abstract:

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a diffusion MRI approach that enables the measurement of brain microstructural properties, reflecting molecular restrictions and tissue heterogeneity. DKI parameters such as mean kurtosis (MK) provide additional subtle information to that provided by popular diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, and thus have been considered useful to detect white matter abnormalities, especially in populations that are not expected to show severe brain pathologies. However, DKI parameters often yield artifactual output values that are outside of the biologically plausible range, which diminish sensitivity to identify true microstructural changes. Recently we have proposed the mean-kurtosis-curve (MK-Curve) method to correct voxels with implausible DKI parameters, and demonstrated its improved performance against other approaches that correct artifacts in DKI. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the utility of the MK-Curve method to improve the identification of white matter abnormalities in group comparisons. To do so, we compared group differences, with and without the MK-Curve correction, between 115 individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and 93 healthy controls (HCs). We also compared the correlation of the corrected and uncorrected DKI parameters with clinical characteristics. Following the MK-curve correction, the group differences had larger effect sizes and higher statistical significance (i.e., lower p-values), demonstrating increased sensitivity to detect group differences, in particular in MK. Furthermore, the MK-curve-corrected DKI parameters displayed stronger correlations with clinical variables in CHR individuals, demonstrating the clinical relevance of the corrected parameters. Overall, following the MK-curve correction our analyses found widespread lower MK in CHR that overlapped with lower fractional anisotropy (FA), and both measures were significantly correlated with a decline in functioning and with more severe symptoms. These observations further characterize white matter alterations in the CHR stage, demonstrating that MK and FA abnormalities are widespread, and mostly overlap. The improvement in group differences and stronger correlation with clinical variables suggest that applying MK-curve would be beneficial for the detection and characterization of subtle group differences in other experiments as well.

Last updated on 02/10/2021